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KUMPULAN SOAL SBMPTN SKOLASTIK
The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial “peepshow”nformat to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater. In the peepshow format, a film was viewed through a small opening in a machine that was created for that purpose. Thomas Edison‟s peepshow device, the Kinetoscope, was introduced to the public in 1894. It was designed for use in Kinetoscope parlors, or arcades, which contained only a few individual machines and permitted only one customer to view a short, 50-foot film at any one time. The first Kinetoscope parlors contained five machines.
For the price of 25 cents (or 5 cents per machine), customers moved from machine to machine to watch five different films (or in the case of famous prizefights, successive rounds of a single fights). These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear different recorded speeches or pieces of music. The Kinetoscope parlors functioned in a similar way. Edison was more interested in the sale of Kinetoscope (for roughly $1,000 a piece) to these parlors than in the films that would be run in them (which cost approximately $10 to $15 each). He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector- from his instead of several.
Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more readily by projecting a handful of films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission. About a year after the opening of the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894, showmen such as Louis and Auguste Lumiere, Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins, and Orville and Woodville Latham (with the assistance of Edison‟s former assistant, William Dickson) perfected projection devices. These earlu projection devices were used in vaudeville theaters, legitimate theaters, local town halls, makseshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show films to a mass audience.
With the advent of projection in 1895-1896, motion pictures became ultimate from of mass consumption. Previously, large audiences had viewed spectacles at the theater, where vaudeville, popular dramas, musical and minstrel shows, classical plays, lectures and slide-and-antern shows had been prsented to several hundred spectcors at a time. But the movies differed significantly from these other forms of entertainment, which depended on either live performance or (in the case of the slide-and lantern shows) the active involvement of a master of ceremonies who assembled the final program.
1. According to paragraph 1, all of the following were true of viewing films in Kinetoscope parlors except . . . .
a. One individual at a time viewed a film
b. Customers could view one film after another
c. Prizefights were the most popular subjects for films
d. Each film was short
e. Customers needed to move from one machine to another to view different film
2. The author discusses phonograph parlors in paragraph 2 in order to . . . .
a. Explain Edison‟s financial success
b. Describe the model used to design Kinetoscope parlors
c. Contrast their popularity to that of Kinetoscope parlors
d. Illustrate how much more technologically advanced Kinetoscope parolrs were
e. Inform the price of Kinetoscope
3. Which of the sentences below best expresses “He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector-from his instead of several.”
a. Edison was more interseted in developing a variety of machines than in developing a technlogy on only one.
b. Edison refused to work on projection technology because he did not think exhibitors would replace their projectors with newer machines.
c. Edison did not want to develop projection technology because it limited the number of machines he should sell.
d. Edison did not want to develop projection technology because he could not sell it to exhibitons.
e. Edison would not develop projections technology unless exhibitors agreed to purchase more than one projector from him.
4. According to paragraph 4, how did the early ….
a. They were a more expensive form of entertainment.
b. They were viewed by larger audiences.
c. They were more educational.
d. They did not require live entertainers.
e. They required active involvement of a master of ceremonies.
Education is often viewed as school in a traditional, formal sense. Many people believe that true learning can only take place in formal classroom setting. Others feel education occurs in many different forms and environments. They may not be a definitive answer to the question of, “What is education?” However, we can start thinking about the purpose of education.
In 1990, UNESCO launched EFA, the movement to provide quality education for all children, youth, and adults by the year of 2015. The unfortunate reality is that for many countries, larger issues come before improving the quality of education. How can we achieve the goals of EFA when the numerous countries around the world are faced with challenges that seem far too impossible to overcome? The answer lies in attempting to bridge some of the gaps that prevent developing nations to compete with developed nations. One example is that of providing greater access to technology and narrowing the ever widening digital divide. In many ways, the most basic access to technology can serve as a valuable educational tool. Individuals who are not afforded this access are at disadvantage when trying to grasp opportunities to make life better for themselves, their families, and their community.
5. The author‟s main concern in the first paragraph of passage is ….
a. There is no exact definition about education.
b. Education is a fundamental individual’s right
c. Everyone has the right to get quality education
d. Education occurs in any place not just schools
e. Development can be gained through education
6. If the author is right concerning the role of education, the following might be predicted to take place, EXCEPT ….
a. Longer life expectation
b. Lesser birth rate
c. Improved welfare
d. Better quality living
e. More jobs opportunities
7. The following sentences reflect the author’s opinions in the passage, EXCEPT ….
a. Everyone has the right to get education
b. Education cannot be easily defined
c. EFA provides quality education by 2015
d. Education is basic to human development
e. The EFA goals are faced with serious challenges
8. The situation the author shows in the passage above is best described as follows ….
a. Quality education fundamentally ensures quality living in all sectors
b. Education is essentially everyone’s right yet it still has its challenges
c. There are problems in eduaction in spite of it significant role
d. As long as nations compete, educations cannot progress
e. Absence of an exact definition causes problems in education
Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Political education has many connotations. It may be defined as the preparation of a citizen to take well informed, responsible and sustained action for participation in the national struggle in order to achieve the socio-economic objectives of the country. The predominant socio- economic objectives in India are the abolition of poverty and the creation of a modern democratic, secular and socialist society in place of the present traditional, feudal, hierarchical and in egalitarian one.
Under the colonial rule, the Congress leaders argued that political education was an important part of education and refused to accept the official view that education and politics should not be mixed with one another. But when they came to power in 1947 they almost adopted the British policy and began to talk of education being defiled by politics. ‘Hands off education’
was the call to political parties. But in spite of it, political infiltration into the educational system has greatly increased in the sense that different political parties vie with each other to capture the mind of teachers and students. The wise academicians wanted political support, without political interference. What we have actually received is infinite political interference with little genuine political support. This interference with the educational system by political parties for their own ulterior motives is no political education at all and with the all round growth of elitism, it is hardly a matter for surprise that real political education within the school system (which really means the creation of a commitment to social transformation) has been even weaker than in the pre-independence period.
During that time only, the struggle for freedom came to an end and the major non- formal agency of political education disappeared. The press played a major role by providing some political education. But it did not utilize the opportunity to the full and the strangle hold of vested interests continued to dominate it. The same can be said of political parties as well as of other institutions and agencies outside the school system which can be expected to provide political education. After analyzing all these things , it appears that we have made no progress in genuine political education in the post-education period and have even slided back in some respects. For instance, the education system has become even more elite-oriented. Patriotism has become the first casualty. The father of the nation gave us the courage to oppose government when it was wrong, in a disciplined fashion and on basic principles. Today, we have even lost the courage to fight on basic issues in a disciplined manner because agitational and anarchic politics for individual, group or party aggrandizement has become common. In the recent times the education system continues to support domination of the privileged groups and domestication of the under- privileged ones. The situation will not change unless we take vigorous steps to provide genuine political education on an adequate scale. This is one of the major educational reforms we need, and if it is not carried out, mere linear expansion of the existing system of formal education will only support the status quo and hamper radical social transformation.
9. Which word is nearly opposite in meaning as “defile” as used in the passage?
10. According to the passage, what should be the main purpose of political education?
A. To champion the cause of elitism
B. To bring qualitative change in the entire education system
C. To create an egalitarian society
D. To prepare the young generation with high intellectual acumen.
11. How has politics been related to educational institutions after independence?
A. Although they got political support but there was no interference of politics.
B. It is clear that they got almost no political support as well as political interference.
C. They got political support at the cost of political interference.
D. There was substantial interference without political support.
12. Based on the passage, which is the major drawback of the present education system?
A. The education system mainly represents the oppressed sections of the society.
B. The present education system promotes the domination of the privileged few.
C. It is based on the British model of education.
D. It is highly hierarchical and egalitarian in nature.
13. Which is the most opposite in meaning to the word ‘hamper’ as used in the passage?
Fill in the blank with the most suitable word(s)!
14. The messy girl shouts and walks unsteadily as if she were drunk. Actually the girl______
A. Is drunk
B. Has been drunk
C. Was drunk
D. Is not drunk
15. The music next door is very loud. I wish someone turned it down.
The underlined sentence means______
A. I will turn the music down
B. Someone turns the music down.
C. I ask someone to turn the music down.
D. I feel annoyed with the music next the door.
16. When I entered the room, everybody stared at me. Perhaps they thought I was a stranger.
We can say:______
A. Everybody stares at me as if I were a stranger.
B. I entered the room as if I had been a stranger.
C. Everybody stares at me as if I was a stranger.
D. Everybody stares at me as if I had been a stranger.
17. “Is Sarasvati still sick?”
“Yes, I wish she ____ here now to help me type the report.”
B. Will be
C. Had been
Directions: Find the error in sentence and choose it as your answer.
18. The woman (A) in red asked me (B) a lot of questions as if she (C) was involved to the problem we (D) faced.
19. (A) The sea mammal “medusa” (B) is popularly called a jellyfish because it (D) which looks rather like jelly.
Directions: Fill in the blank with the most suitable word!
The 18th and 19th centuries glass was very expensive and was … (57) for limited applications, such as stained glass windows for churches. Large-scale glass manufacture … (58) with the industrial revolution with the mass production of glass containers beginning at the onset of the 20th century and glass light bulb production automated in 1926.
20. The correct answer is …
21. The correct answer is …
22. The productions of that company are not as many as last year productions. The Manager requested that the employer ... efficiently and effectively.
B. to work
23. ... It rains so hard, All the workers keep going to office.
B. Despite of
C. In spite of
Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
A fact that draws our attention is that, according to his position in life, an extravagant man is either admired or loathed. A successful business man does nothing to increase his popularity by being prudent with his money. A person who is wealthy is expected to lead a luxurious life and to be laviszh with his hospitality. If he is not so, he is considered mean, and his reputation in business may even suffer in consequence. The paradox remains that he had not been careful with his money in the first place; he would never have achieved his present wealth.
Among the low income group, a different set of values exists. The young clerk, who makes his wife a present of a new dress when he has not paid his house rent, is condemned as extravagant. Carefulness with money to the point of meanness is applauded as a virtue. Nothing in his life is considered more worthy than paying his bills. The ideal wife for such a man separates her housekeeping money into joyless little piles – so much for rent, for food, for the children’s shoes, she is able to face the milkman with equanimity every, month satisfied with her economizing ways , and never knows the guilt of buying something she can’t really afford .
As for myself, I fall neither of these categories. If I have money to spare I can be extravagant, but when, as is usually the case, I am hard up and then I am the meanest man imaginable.
24. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the passage:
A. Being extravagant is always condemnable.
B. The cause of poverty is extravagance.
C. Extravagance is a part of the rich as well as of the poor.
D. Stingy habits of the poor.
25. According to the passage the person, who is a successful businessman and wealthy
A. Is expected to have lavish lifestyle.
B. Should not bother about popularity.
C. Is more popular if he appears to be wasting away his time.
D. Must be extravagant before achieving success.
26. The phrase ‘lavish with his hospitality’ in the third sentence of the first paragraph means
A. Thoughtful in spending only on guests and strangers.
B. Unconcerned in treating his friends and relatives.
C. Stinginess in dealing with his relatives.
D. Extravagance in entertaining guest.
27. The word ‘paradox’ in the last sentence of the first paragraph means
A. Statement based on the popular opinion
B. a statement that seems self-contradictory but in reality expresses a possible truth.
C. Statement based on facts
D. A word that brings out the hidden meaning
28. What is the meaning of the word “equanimity”?
Direction: Fill in the blank with the most suitable word(s)!
29. “I am sorry I don’t know the answer, but I really wish i_______”
(C) Have known
(D) Had known
30. She would rather ______ vegetables than flowers.
31. They praised ....................................... to gain cheap popularity.
Directions: Find the error in sentence and choose it as your answer.
B. each other
C. each others
D. each another
32. (A)We’re not (B)sure he is (C)enough experienced (D)for the position.
33. We (A)talked (B)during three (C)hours this morning (D)in living room.
34. We (A)regularly conduct emergency drills (B)for ensuring (C)that we are prepared for (D)an emergency.
35. Carnevale _____the last opportunity for everybody to eat well and enough before a time of privation preceding the return of the fertile season.
B. Would be
C. Will be
36. Jack came back with a witty retort to the reporter's question.
The word “retort” has closest meaning with...
A. a sharp reply
B. a low tone answer
C. Clear reply
D. Long explanation
37. Our country____ become a super power by 2025.
Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
If a person suddenly encounters any terrible danger, the change of nature one undergoes is equally great. Sometimes fear numbs our senses. Like animals, one stands still, powerless to move a step in fright or to lift a hand in defense of our lives, and sometimes one is seized with panic, and again, act more like the inferior animals than rational beings. On the other hand, frequently in cases of sudden extreme peril, which cannot be escaped by flight, and must be instantly faced, even the most timid men at once as if by miracle, become possessed of the necessary courage, sharp quick apprehension and swift decision. This is a miracle very common in nature. Man and the inferior animals alike, when confronted with almost certain death ‘ gather resolution from despair’ but there can really be no trace of so debilitating a feeling in the person fighting, or prepared to fight for dear life. At such times the mind is clearer than it has ever been; the nerves are steel, there is nothing felt but a wonderful strength and daring. Looking back at certain perilous moments in my own life, I remember them with a kind of joy, not that there was any joyful excitement then, but because they broadened my horizon, lifted me for a time above myself.
38. The title that best suits the passage would be:
A. The Will to Fight
B. The Miracle of Confronting Danger
C. The Change of Nature
D. Courage and Panic
39. A man may react to sudden danger in three different ways . What are they?
A. He may flee in panic, or fight back or stand still.
B. He may be paralyzed with fear, seized with panic or act like an inferior animal.
C. He may be paralyzed with fear, or seized with panic, or as if by miracle, become possessed of the necessary courage, and face the danger.
D. He may be paralyzed with fear, run away or fight.
40. What is the meaning of the word debilitating ?
41. Explain the phrase ‘gather resolution from danger’. A. Find peace in times of difficulty.
B. A state of utter hopelessness makes one determined to face the difficulty.
C. To remain calm and not to lose hope.
D. To be enthusiastic and brave the odds.
42. The author feels happy in the recollection of dangers faced and overcome because
A. They brought him a new experience.
B. They added a new perspective and lifted him above himself for a time.
C. These experiences boosted his confidence.
D. He felt elated as he was alive.
43. Being an outgoing person, Andrew_____ his time with friends on Saturday nights than stay at home.
(A) Might be spending
(B) Would rather spend
(C) Could have spent
(D) Ought to have spent
44. The local society cannot continue with the construction of the two school buildings because of the lack of funds and_______
(A) The local political condition is very unstable
(B) The locally unstable political condition
(C) The political condition is locally unstable.
(D) The instability of the local political condition.
45. His shop was burnt down ____ his car that was parked nearby.
(A) And either did
(B) So did
(C) Also was
(D) And so was
46. I’ve worked (A) like a waiter (B)in the past, (C)but I (D)wouldn’t want to do it again.
47. (A)To sleep (B)at work is (C)acceptable (D)in some cultures.
48. (A)I’m going to take my lunch (B)break and then (C)to make (D)some phone calls.
49. Cleopatra …………… sell her home because she needs money.
Please read the following passage below.
The preservation of embryos and juveniles is a rare occurrence in the fossil record. The tiny, delicate skeletons are usually scattered by scavengers or destroyed by weathering before they can be fossilized. Ichthyosaurs had a higher chance of being preserved than did terrestrial creatures because, as marine animals, they tended to live in environments less subject to erosion. Still, their fossilization required a suite of factors: a slow rate of decay of soft tissues, little scavenging by other animals, a lack of swift currents and waves to jumble and carry away small bones, and fairly rapid burial. these factors, some areas have become a treasury of well-preserved ichthyosaur fossils.
The deposits at Holzmaden, Germany, present an interesting case for analysis. The ichthyosaur remains are found in black , bituminous marine shales deposited about 190 million years ago. Over the years, thousands of specimens of marine reptiles, fish, and invertebrates have been recovered from these rocks. The quality of preservation is outstanding, but what is even more impressive is the number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos. Ichthyosaurs with embryos have been reported from 6 different levels of the shale in a small area around Holzmaden, suggesting that a specific site was used by large numbers of ichthyosaurs repeatedly over time. The embryos are quite advanced in their physical development; their paddles, for example, are already well formed. One specimen is even preserved in the birth canal. In addition, the shale contains the remains of many newborns that are between 20 and 30 inches long.
Why are there so many pregnant females and young at Holzmaden when they are so rare elsewhere? The quality of preservation is almost unmatched and quarry operations have been carried out carefully with an awareness of the value of the fossils. But these factors do not account for the interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of giving birth.
50. The passage supports which of the following conclusions?
A. Some species of ichthyosaurs decayed more rapidly than other species.
B. Ichthyosaurs newborns are smaller than other newborn marine reptiles
C. Ichthyosaurs were more advanced than terrestrial creatures
D. Ichthyosaurs may have gathered at Holzmaden to give birth
51. All of the following are mentioned as a factors that encourage fossilization EXCEPT the
A. Speed of burial
B. Conditions of the water
C. Rate at which soft tissues decay
D. Cause of death of the animal
52. Which of the following best expresses the relationship between the first and second paragraphs
A. The first paragraph describes a place while the second paragraph describes the field of study
B. The first paragraph defines the terms that are used in the second paragraph.
C. the second paragraph describes a specific instance of the general topic discussed in the first paragraph.
D. the second paragraph presents information that contrasts with the information given in the first paragraph.
Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Caffeine, the stimulant in coffee, has been called “the most widely used psychoactive substance on Earth.” Synder, Daly and Bruns have recently proposed that caffeine affects behavior by countering the activity in the human brain of a naturally occurring chemical called adenosine. Adenosine normally depresses neuron firing in many areas of the brain. It apparently does this by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry nerve impulses from one neuron to the next. Like many other agents that affect neuron firing, adenosine must first bind to specific receptors on neuronal membranes. There are at least two classes of these receptors, which have been designated A1 and A2.
Snyder et al propose that caffeine, which is structurally similar to adenosine, is able to bind to both types of receptors, which prevents adenosine from attaching there and allows the neurons to fire more readily than they otherwise would.
For many years, caffeine’s effects have been attributed to its inhibition of the production of phosphodiesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the chemical called cyclic AMP. A number of neurotransmitters exert their effects by first increasing cyclic AMP concentrations in target neurons. Therefore, prolonged periods at the elevated concentrations, as might be brought about by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, could lead to a greater amount of neuron firing and, consequently, to behavioral stimulation. But Snyder et al point out that the caffeine concentrations needed to inhibit the production of phosphodiesterase in the brain are much higher than those that produce stimulation. Moreover, other compounds that block phosphodiesterase’s activity are not stimulants.
To buttress their case that caffeine acts instead by preventing adenosine binding, Snyder et al compared the stimulatory effects of a series of caffeine derivatives with their ability to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in the brains of mice. “In general,” they reported, “the ability of the compounds to compete at the receptors correlates with their ability to stimulate locomotion in the mouse; i.e., the higher their capacity to bind at the receptors, the higher their ability to stimulate locomotion.” Theophylline, a close structural relative of caffeine and the major stimulant in tea, was one of the most effective compounds in both regards. There were some apparent exceptions to the general correlation observed between adenosine-receptor binding and stimulation. One of these was a compound called 3-isobuty1-1-methylxanthine(IBMX), which bound very well but actually depressed mouse locomotion. Snyder et al suggest that this is not a major stumbling block to their hypothesis. The problem is that the compound has mixed effects in the brain, a not unusual occurrence with psychoactive drugs. Even caffeine, which is generally known only for its stimulatory effects, displays this property, depressing mouse locomotion at very low concentrations and stimulating it at higher ones.
53. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) discuss a plan for investigation of a phenomenon that is not yet fully understood
(B) present two explanations of a phenomenon and reconcile the differences between them
(C) summarize two theories and suggest a third theory that overcomes the problems encountered in the first two
(D) describe an alternative hypothesis and provide evidence and arguments that support it
(E) challenge the validity of a theory by exposing the inconsistencies and contradictions in it
54. According so Snyder et al, caffeine differs from adenosine in that caffeine
(A) stimulates behavior in the mouse and in humans, whereas adenosine stimulates behavior in humans only
(B) has mixed effects in the brain, whereas adenosine has only a stimulatory effect
(C) increases cyclic AMP concentrations in target neurons, whereas adenosine decreases such concentrations
(D) permits release of neurotransmitters when it is bound to adenosine receptors, whereas adenosine inhibits such release
(E) inhibits both neuron firing and the production of phosphodiesterase when there is a sufficient concentration in the brain, whereas adenosine inhibits only neuron firing
55. In response to experimental results concerning IBMX, Snyder et al contended that it is not uncommon for psychoactive drugs to have
(A) mixed effects in the brain
(B) inhibitory effects on enzymes in the brain
(C) close structural relationships with caffeine
(D) depressive effects on mouse locomotion
(E) the ability to dislodge caffeine from receptors in the brain
56. According to Snyder et al, all of the following compounds can bind to specific receptors in the brain EXCEPT
57. Snyder et al suggest that caffeine’s ability to bind to A1 and A2 receptors can be at least partially attributed to which of the following?
(A) The chemical relationship between caffeine and phosphodiesterase
(B) The structural relationship between caffeine and adenosine
(C) The structural similarity between caffeine and neurotransmitters
(D) The ability of caffeine to stimulate behavior
(E) The natural occurrence of caffeine and adenosine in the brain
Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems.
First, it is the poorest of the poor. Only paltry sums are available for excavating and even less is available for publishing the results and preserving the sites once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless objects every day.
Second, there is the problem of illegal excavation, resulting in museum-quality pieces being sold to the highest bidder.
I would like to make an outrageous suggestion that would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and reduce the amount of illegal digging. I would propose that scientific archeological expeditions and governmental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites and the publication of results. At the same time, they would break the illegal excavator’s grip on the market, thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal activities.
You might object that professionals excavate to acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient artifacts are part of our global cultural heritage, which should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that has unique artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply, everything that comes out of the ground has scientific value. Here we part company. Theoretically, you may be correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scientific value. Practically, you are wrong.
I refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another. In one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in a single courtyard, even precious royal seal impressions known as melekh handles have been found in abundance — more than 4,000 examples so far.
The basement of museums is simply not large enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discovered in the future. There is not enough money even to catalogue the finds; as a result, they cannot be found again and become as inaccessible as if they had never been discovered. Indeed, with the help of a computer, sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to sale, each could be photographed and the list of the purchasers could be maintained on the computer A purchaser could even be required to agree to return the piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes. It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging would stop if artifacts were sold in the open market. But the demand for the clandestine product would be substantially reduced. Who would want an unmarked pot when another was available whose provenance was known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the professional archaeologist who excavated it?
Based on the Passage, answer the following questions:
58. The primary purpose of the passage is to propose
(A) an alternative to museum display of artifacts
(B) a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the archaeological profession
(C) a way to distinguish artifacts with the scientific value from those that have no such value
(D) the governmental regulation of archaeological sites
(E) a new system for cataloging duplicate artifacts
59. The author implies that all of the following statements about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT:
(A) A market for such artifacts already exists.
(B) Such artifacts seldom have scientific value.
(C) There is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts.
(D) Museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts.
(E) Such artifacts frequently exceed in quality in comparison to those already cataloged in museum collections
60. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a disadvantage of storing artifacts in museum basements?
(A) Museum officials rarely allow scholars access to such artifacts.
(B) Space that could be better used for display is taken up for storage.
(C) Artifacts discovered in one excavation often become separated from each other.
(D) Such artifacts are often damaged by variations in temperature and humidity.
(E) Such artifacts’ often remain uncatalogued and thus cannot be located once they are put in storage
61. The author’s argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation is based on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Prospective purchasers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.
(B) The price of illegally excavated artifacts would rise.
(C) Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts.
(D) Illegal excavators would be forced to sell only duplicate artifacts.
(E) Money gained from selling authenticated artifacts could be used to investigate and prosecute illegal excavators
62. The author anticipates which of the following initial objections to the adoption of his proposal?
(A) Museum officials will become unwilling to store artifacts.
(B) An oversupply of salable artifacts will result and the demand for them will fall.
(C) Artifacts that would have been displayed in public places will be sold to private collectors.
(D) Illegal excavators will have an even larger supply of artifacts for resale.
(E) Counterfeiting of artifacts will become more commonplace “I visited Bandung Institute Technology last week.”
63. “That’s the place _______ my brother is studying now.”
64. Doctors agree_____patients should try t reduce talking medicine for slight headaches.
65. ________ Joshua a good actor is his ability to play the role of different characters so well.
(A) That makes
(B) Whether making
(C) What makes
(D) This is made
(E) That Made
67. Smoking can be the cause of many illnesses and respiratory disorder; _______, it may harm non-smokers.
(C) In Addition
68. Most mangoes in Britain arrive by airfreight______ they are still fresh when they reach the consumers.
(D) So that
Many United States companies have, unfortunately, made the search for legal protection from import competition into a major line of work. Since 1980 the United States International Trade Commission (ITC) has received about 280 complaints alleging damage from imports that benefit from subsidies by foreign governments. Another 340 charge that foreign companies “dumped” their products in the United States at “less than fair value.” Even when no unfair practices are alleged, the simple claim that an industry has been injured by imports is sufficient grounds to seek relief.
Contrary to the general impression, this quest for import relief has hurt more companies than it has helped. As corporations begin to function globally, they develop an intricate web of marketing, production, and research relationships, The complexity of these relationships makes it unlikely that a system of import relief laws will meet the strategic needs of all the units under the same parent company.
Internationalization increases the danger that foreign companies will use import relief laws against the very companies the laws were designed to protect. Suppose a United States-owned company establishes an overseas plant to manufacture a product while its competitor makes the same product in the United States. If the competitor can prove injury from the imports—and that the United States company received a subsidy from a foreign government to build its plant abroad—the United States company’s products will be uncompetitive in the United States, since they would be subject to duties.
Perhaps the most brazen case occurred when the ITC investigated allegations that Canadian companies were injuring the United States salt industry by dumping rock salt, used to de-ice roads. The bizarre aspect of the complaint was that a foreign conglomerate with United States operations was crying for help against a United States company with foreign operations. The “United States” company claiming injury was a subsidiary of a Dutch conglomerate, while the “Canadian” companies included a subsidiary of a Chicago firm that was the second-largest domestic producer of rock salt.
Based on the Passage, answer the following questions:
69. The passage is chiefly concerned with
(A) arguing against the increased internationalization of United States corporations
(B) warning that the application of laws affecting trade frequently has unintended consequences
(C) demonstrating that foreign-based firms receive more subsidies from their governments than United States firms receive from the United States government
(D) advocating the use of trade restrictions for “dumped” products but not for other imports
(E) recommending a uniform method for handling claims of unfair trade practices
70. It can be inferred from the passage that the minimal basis for a complaint to the International Trade Commission is which of the following?
(A) A foreign competitor has received a subsidy from a foreign government.
(B) A foreign competitor has substantially increased the volume of products shipped to the United States.
(C) A foreign competitor is selling products in the United States at less than fair market value.
(D) The company requesting import relief has been injured by the sale of imports in the United States.
(E) The company requesting import relief has been barred from exporting products to the country of its foreign competitor.
71. The last paragraph performs which of the following functions in the passage?
(A) It summarizes the discussion thus far and suggests additional areas of research.
(B) It presents a recommendation based on the evidence presented earlier.
(C) It discusses an exceptional case in which the results expected by the author of the passage were not obtained.
(D) It introduces an additional area of concern not mentioned earlier.
(E) It cites a specific case that illustrates a problem presented more generally in the previous paragraph.
72. The passage warns of which of the following dangers?
(A) Companies in the United States may receive no protection from imports unless they actively seek protection from import competition.
(B) Companies that seek legal protection from import competition may incur legal costs that far exceed any possible gain.
(C) Companies that are United States-owned but operate internationally may not be eligible for protection from import competition under the laws of the countries in which their plants operate.
(D) Companies that are not United States-owned may seek legal protection from import competition under United States import relief laws.
(E) Companies in the United States that import raw materials may have to pay duties on those materials.
73. The passage suggests that which of the following is most likely to be true of United States trade laws?
(A) They will eliminate the practice of “dumping” products in the United States.
(B) They will enable manufacturers in the United States to compete more profitably outside the United States.
(C) They will affect United States trade with Canada more negatively than trade with other nations.
(D) Those that help one unit within a parent company will not necessarily help other units in the company.
(E) Those that are applied to international companies will accomplish their intended result.
74. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about the complaint mentioned in the last paragraph?
(A) The ITC acted unfairly toward the complainant in its investigation.
(B) The complaint violated the intent of import relief laws.
(C) The response of the ITC to the complaint provided suitable relief from unfair trade practices to the complainant.
(D) The ITC did not have access to appropriate information concerning the case.
(E) Each of the companies involved in the complaint acted in its own best interest.
At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest in Native American customs and an increasing desire to understand Native American culture prompted ethnologists to begin recording the life stories of Native American. Ethnologists had a distinct reason for wanting to hear the stories: they were after linguistic or anthropological data that would supplement their own field observations, and they believed that the personal stories, even of a single individual, could increase their understanding of the cultures that they had been observing from without. In addition many ethnologists at the turn of the century believed that Native American manners and customs were rapidly disappearing, and that it was important to preserve for posterity as much information as could be adequately recorded before the cultures disappeared forever.
There were, however, arguments against this method as a way of acquiring accurate and complete information. Franz Boas, for example, described autobiographies as being “of limited value, and useful chiefly for the study of the perversion of truth by memory,” while Paul Radin contended that investigators rarely spent enough time with the tribes they were observing, and inevitably derived results too tinged by the investigator’s own emotional tone to be reliable. Even more importantly, as these life stories moved from the traditional oral mode to recorded written form, much was inevitably lost. Editors often decided what elements were significant to the field research on a given tribe. Native Americans recognized that the essence of their lives could not be communicated in English and that events that they thought significant were often deemed unimportant by their interviewers. Indeed, the very act of telling their stories could force Native American narrators to distort their cultures, as taboos had to be broken to speak the names of dead relatives crucial to their family stories. Despite all of this, autobiography remains a useful tool for ethnological research: such personal reminiscences and impressions, incomplete as they may be, are likely to throw more light on the working of the mind and emotions than any amount of speculation from an ethnologist or ethnological theorist from another culture.
75. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) The historical backgrounds of two currently used research methods are chronicled.
(B) The validity of the data collected by using two different research methods is compared.
(C) The usefulness of a research method is questioned and then a new method is proposed.
(D) The use of a research method is described and the limitations of the results obtained are discussed.
(E) A research method is evaluated and the changes necessary for its adaptation to other subject areas are discussed.
76. Which of the following is most similar to the actions of nineteenth-century ethnologists in their editing of the life stories of Native Americans?
(A) A witness in a jury trial invokes the Fifth Amendment in order to avoid relating personally incriminating evidence.
(B) A stockbroker refuses to divulge the source of her information on the possible future increase in a stock’s value.
(C) A sports announcer describes the action in a team sport with which he is unfamiliar.
(D) A chef purposely excludes the special ingredient from the recipe of his prizewinning dessert.
(E) A politician fails to mention in a campaign speech the similarities in the positions held by her opponent for political office and by herself.
77. According to the passage, collecting life stories can be a useful methodology because
(A) life stories provide deeper insights into a culture than the hypothesizing of academics who are not members of that culture
(B) life stories can be collected easily and they are not subject to invalid interpretations
(C) ethnologists have a limited number of research methods from which to choose
(D) life stories make it easy to distinguish between the important and unimportant features of a culture
(E) the collection of life stories does not require a culturally knowledgeable investigator
78. Information in the passage suggests that which of the following may be a possible way to eliminate bias in the editing of life stories?
(A) Basing all inferences made about the culture on an ethnological theory
(B) Eliminating all of the emotion-laden information reported by the informant
(C) Translating the informant’s words into the researcher’s language
(D) Reducing the number of questions and carefully specifying the content of the questions that the investigator can ask the informant
(E) Reporting all of the information that the informant provides regardless of the investigator’s personal opinion about its intrinsic value
79. The primary purpose of the passage as a whole is to
(A) question an explanation
(B) correct a misconception
(C) critique a methodology
(D) discredit an idea
(E) clarify an ambiguity
80. It can be inferred from the passage that a characteristic of the ethnological research on Native Americans conducted during the nineteenth century was the use of which of the following?
(A) Investigators familiar with the culture under study
(B) A language other than the informant’s for recording life stories
(C) Life stories as the ethnologist’s primary source of information
(D) Complete transcriptions of informants’ descriptions of tribal beliefs
(E) Stringent guidelines for the preservation of cultural data
Let us go then, you and I, When the evening is spread out against the sky Like a patient etherized upon a table; Let us go, through certain half-deserted streets, The muttering retreats Of restless nights in one-night cheap hotels And sawdust restaurants with oyster-shells: Streets that follow like a tedious argument Of insidious intent To lead you to an overwhelming question. . . Oh, do not ask, “What is it?” Let us go and make our visit.
In the room the women come and go Talking of Michelangelo.
The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window-panes
The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes Licked its tongue into the corners of the evening Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains, Let fall upon its back the soot that falls from chimneys, Slipped by the terrace, made a sudden leap, And seeing that it was a soft October night Curled once about the house, and fell asleep.
And indeed there will be time For the yellow smoke that slides along the street, Rubbing its back upon the window-panes; There will be time, there will be time To prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet; There will be time to murder and create, And time for all the works and days of hands That lift and drop a question on your plate; Time for you and time for me, And time yet for a hundred indecisions And for a hundred visions and revisions Before the taking of a toast and tea.
In the room the women come and go Talking of Michelangelo.And indeed there will be time
To wonder, “Do I dare?” and, “Do I dare?”
Time to turn back and descend the stair, With a bald spot in the middle of my hair— [They will say: “How his hair is growing thin!”] My morning coat, my collar mounting firmly to the chin, My necktie rich and modest, but asserted by a simple pin— [They will say: “But how his arms and legs are thin!”] Do I dare Disturb the universe? In a minute there is time for decisions and revisions which a minute will reverse.
For I have known them all already, known them all; Have known the evenings, mornings, afternoons, I have measured out my life with coffee spoons; I know the voices dying with a dying fall Beneath the music from a farther room. So how should I presume?
Based on the Passage, answer the following questions:
81. Which of the following meanings can be inferred from the lines “o I dare Disturb the universe?”
(a) The author is referring to his bright future.
(b) The author fears that he will cause some major upheaval in world.
(c) The author refers to the ‘status quo’ in which he is in.
(d) The author expresses his feeling of being pinned against a wall.
(e) The author is apprehensive about his last days.
82. What, according to the passage, is the reason for the author’s optimism?
(a) That the women are talking of Michelangelo.
(b) That the yellow fog rubs upon the window-panes.
(c) That it was an October night.
(d) That there will be moments for everything.
(e) That the falling soot made a sudden leap.
83. In the first ten lines of the passage the author embodies which of the following with human attributes?
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