Selasa, 16 Februari 2021

DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)

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 D. DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)


Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan, yaitu:

1. Positive (tingkat biasa) 

S + tobe + adjective/k.sifat 

                    contoh:  Jojon is handsome

                                 Gogon is clever 

2. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) 

S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than

       contoh:  Jojon is more handsome than Aming

        Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 

3. Superlative (tingkat palinga) 

S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase

            Contoh:   Jojon is the most handsome 

             Bajuri is the cleverest person


      Catatan

a. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata  “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative.

       Contoh:      beautiful        more beaitiful      the most beautiful

b. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative.

Contoh:       bad          worse         worst

                     good       better          best

                     much       more          most

c. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua  yang berakhir  dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah:

1. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal.

Contoh:    rich      richer       richest

                deep     deeper      deepest

2. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est.

Contoh:      big      bigger       biggest

3. Kata  yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st.

Contoh:       large      larger      largest

4. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku.

Contoh:     easy         easier        easiest

                 coy           coyer         coyest

5. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran –some, -ow, -le, -er. 

Contoh:     clever        cleverer       cleverest


E. QUESTION TAGS 

Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan.

Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman, isn’t she?

              My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week, did he?

a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does, did, have/has, had, will, shall, can, may, dll. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are, was/were, dll.

b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya

 

F. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) 


Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada.

Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (,).

Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence   :

 

1. Future Conditional (type 1)

Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Apa yang diucapkan, itulah yang diharapkan. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi.

Contoh: If I have much money, I will buy a new car.

      (jika saya punya uang, saya akan membeli mobil baru)

Pola : If + simple present      +    simple future/modal

           S + V1                            S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1

           S + am/is/are                 S + will shall/can/must/may + be

2. Present Conditional (type 2)

   Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Kalau kalimatnya (+), maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja).

   Contoh :  (+) If I had time, I would go to the beach with you.

                  (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi)

   Pola:  If + simple past      +      past future/modal

            V2                            would/should/could/had to/might + V1

             Was/were                would/should/could/had to/might + be

   Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai.


3. Past Conditional (type 3)

Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau, tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Kalau kalimatnya (+), maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya.

Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja)

Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there, I would have written you a letter.

( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana, saya sudah mengirim surat padamu- ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana)

      Pola: If  +  past perfect  +      past future perfect/modal perfect

                          Had + V3       would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3

                           Had been      would/should/could/had to/might + have been 


G. RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) 


Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who, whom, whose, which, of which.

Rumus Umum :  

Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda

Subjek 

Objek

Kepunyaan (possesseve) Who/that 

Whom/that

whose Which/that 

Which/that

Of which

1. Who/that: “yang”

Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek

Contoh: We know a lot of people.      They live in Jakarta

               S                     O                    S        

            We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta 

   (They = a lot ao people, jabatan dalam kalimat subjek,) 


2. Whom/that: “yang”

Digunakan untuk pengganti objek

Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man.      I met him last week.

                    S                                     O            S          O

              The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. 

     (him = the man, jabatan sebagai objek)

                           


3. whose: “yang punya”

Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my, your, our, his, their, its, her.

Contoh: We saw the people. Their car has been stolen.

               S               O           possessive

             We saw the people whose car had been stolen. 

      (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 


4. which/that

Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek

Contoh:  I don’t like the stories.          They are printed in English.

                                         S

               I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English.

(they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) 

My mother loves a red car very much.       I bought it last year.

                                                 O                                             O

               My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much 

( it = a red car, sebuah benda, jabatan sebagai objek)


6. Of which

Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang.

Contoh:   I sent the table back to the store.        Its  surface is not smooth.   

                                                                   Possessive

               I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store.

(its surface/permukaannya meja. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 


7. Where


8. When

 

H. SUBJUNCTIVE WISH

   Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. 

Future

Rumus :  S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be

            Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that.

                 (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu)

                       I wish she would come to my party to night 

                              (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini)

Present

Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were

  Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me.

                         (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya)

                 They wish they didn’t have to go to school today.

                         (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah)

Past

Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3

      Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night.

              (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) 


I. CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET 

   Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu, sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. 

                                   Rumus Active

S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² 

S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object

 

Contoh : 

(1).  She   has   the shoemaker   mend   her shoes

        S               Someone/O¹         V1    something/O²

       (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu  memperbaiki sepatunya)

                                             O¹                      V1                  O²

(2).  I had mechanic repair my car.

       (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya 


Contoh : 

(1). She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes.

       (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya)

              (2). I got the mechanic to repair my car.

                    (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) 

 

                          Rumus Passive

S + have/has/had + O + V3 

S + get/gets/got + O + V3

      Contoh 

      (1). The manager has the letter  typed.

                                                     O          V3

                                (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik)

                   (2). The manager gets the letter typed.

                    (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik)  


J. GERUND 

   Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Gerund digunakan bila:

1. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek.

   Contoh: Swimming is a good sport.

   Jogging makes us fresh.

2. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap.

   Contoh : My hobby is cycling.

3. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for, on, before dll.

Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.

       Before leaving, he said nothing.

4. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use, to be worth, to be busy, can’t help/can’t bear,to be used to, get used to.

Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing.

5. Setelah possessive adjective (my,your, his,her,our,their,Amir’s, dll)

Contoh : His staring frigtens me.

6. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu

 

Admit 

Appreciate

Claim

Can’t help

Resume Consider 

Avoid

Delay

Deny

Risk Enjoy 

Finish

Quit

Resist

Siggest Mind 

Miss

Postpone

Practice

Advise Recall 

Regret

Report

Recent

resist

 

   Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. 


K. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) 

Menyukai A ketimbang B

1.

S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing

Contoh:

- Dona prefers dancing to singing.

  (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi)

- Juned prefers combro to deblo.

  (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo)

2.

S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing

Contoh:

- I like T.V better than radio.

- Kokom likes reading better than watching T.V.

3.

S + would rather + V1 + than + V1

Contoh:

- Dita would rather watch T.V . than plays a video game.

  (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.V ketimbang main video game)

4.

S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1

      Contoh:

- Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS.

  (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) 


L. CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)

   Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3, yaitu:

1. Menunjukan waktu: before, after, as soon as, while, when.

a. We went home after the rain stopped.

b. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris.

c. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city.

d. While he was reading her novel, somebody knocked on the door.

e. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie.

2. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of, since.

a. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident.

b. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident.

c. Since I have no money, I can’t treat you.

3. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first, next, then, after that, finally.

a. first, we must prepare the ingredients.

b. Next, we cut the vegetables into small pieces.

c. After that, we put them into frying pan.

d. Finally, we put some sauce and salt.    


M. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) 

Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata.

1. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and, or, but, for, although/though, that, if, dll.

Contoh: - You can read this book if you like.

         (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau)

       - I went to your house but you weren’t at home.

         (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah)

       - Amir and I go to school everyday.

         (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari)

       - Although it was raining, he come on time.

         (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu)

2. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti:

both…and…  (…dan juga….)

not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…)

either…or…  (….maupun…)

neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) 

Contoh: - He is both wise and good.

         (dia bijaksana dan juga baik)

       - He is not only active but also clever.

         (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar)

       - Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.

         (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita)

       - The research is neither intersting nor accurate

         (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) 

N. ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION

Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. 


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PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif)

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 C. PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) 


Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan, sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan.


Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah:

Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V)

Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita.

Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.

Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif )

   Contoh : (Aktive)   Bajuri loves Oneng

                                      S     P/V1      O

                  (Passive)  Oneng is loved by Bajuri.

                                      S          P/V3

                  (Active)    I bought a new motorcycle last week.

                  (passive)   A new motorcycle was bought by me last week 


Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses

Tenses Active Passive

Simple Present 

Simple Past S + V1 

S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 

S + was/were + V3

Present Continuous 

Present perfect continuous

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Future Continuous

Future Perfect Continuous

Past Futurre Continuous

Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing 

S + have/has + been + V-ing

S + was/were + V-ing

S + had + been + V-ing

S + will/shall + be + V-ing

S + will + have + V-ing

S + would + be + V-ing+

S +would +have+been+V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 

S + have/has +been + being  +V3

S + was/were + being + V3

S + had + been + being + V3

S + will/shall + be + being + V3

S + will +have+been+ being +V3

S + would + be + being + V3

S +would+have+been+ being+V3

Simple Perfect 

Past Perfect S + have/has + V3 

S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 

S + had + been + V3

Simple Future 

Past Future

Modal (present)

Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 

S + would/should + V1 

S + may/can/must + V1

S + might/could/had to + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 

S + would/should + be + V3

S + may/can/must + be + V3

S + might/could/had to + be + V3

 

Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah

Present 

Past

Perfect

Continuous

Future/modal am/is/are + V3 

was/were + V3

been + V3

being + V3

be + V3

 

Contoh Soal

1. A : Look! The girl is crying. What happened to her just now?

B : While playing with her brother, she ____

a. kicks    d. was kicking

b. kicked    e. was kicked

c. will kick

Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3)


2. A : Do you know the result of the test?

B : Not yet. The announcement ____ twice.

a. was postponed   d. has to be postponed

b. was being postponed  e. has been postponed

c. will be postponed

Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past)


3. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others?

Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price.

a. is sold    d. were sold

b. are sold    e. had been sold

c. was sold

Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are)


4. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain.

Y : Really, when….?

a. was it abolishing  d. was it to abolish

b. did it abolish   e. to be abolished

c. was it abolished

Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3)


5. Dita : When did the accident happen?

Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck.

a. have been unloaded  d. will be unloaded

b. were being unloaded  e. are unloaded

c. are being unloaded

Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) 


Soal-Soal Latihan


1. R.A. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879.

a. is born    d. would be born

b. was born   e. has been born

c. will be born


2.  The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order.

   a. is arranged   d. have arranged

   b. was arranged   e. has arranged

   c. have been arranged


3.   A big dam ___ in this area next year.

   a. will build   d. has been built

   b. will be built   e. is being built

   c. would be built


4.   We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___.

   a. was being cleaned  d. will clean

   b. is being cleaned   e. cleaned

   c. has been cleaned


5.   They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire.

   a. destroyed   d. will be destroyed

   b. had destroyed   e. is being destroyed

   c. was destroyed


6.   She looks after the baby well.

   The passive form is ____

   a. the baby is well looked after     

   b. the baby was looked after well  

   c. the baby will be well looked after

d. the baby is being looked after well

e. the baby would be well looked after


7.   Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company, therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company.

   a. rewarded   d. is being rewarded

   b. was rewarded   e. has been rewarded

   c. will be rewarded


8.   At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot.

   a. demolishing   d. had been demilishing

   b. is being demolished  e. is demolishing

   c. was being demolishing



9.   Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother.

   a. has promised   d. has been promising

   b. will be promised  e. was being promised

   c. will be promised


10. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident, he ____ to the nearest hospital.

   a. will be taken   d. was taken

   b. is being taken   e. took

   c. has been taken 


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DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech)

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 B. DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) 


Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses, struktur kalimat, pronoun (kata ganti orang), Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan), keterangan waktu, dan tempat.

Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung.

Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what, why, where, when, who, how. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1, (-) not to infinitive/V1 


Contoh Kalimat 

Kalimat langsung/direct Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect

(+) He said, “ I have a present for you in my bag.”

(-) He said, “I do not have a present for you in my bag”

(?) He asked, “Do I have a present for you in my bag?”

(?) He asked me, “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag?

(!) He ordered/commanded me, “Bring my bag here now!”

(!) He ordered me, “Don’t bring your bag here!” (+) He said that he had a present for me in his bag.

(-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag.

(?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag.

(?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag.

(!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then.

(!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there.

 

Perubahan Tenses

Direct (kalimat langsung) Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung)

 

Simple Present 

Present Continuous

Present Future

Present Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous

Simple Past

Past Continuous  

Simple Past 

Past Continuous

Past Future

Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous

 

Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah:

Direct Indirect

V1 (eat) 

V2 (ate)

Am/is/are

Do/does

Do/does not

Did not

Was/were

Am/is/are + V-ing

Was/were +V-ing

Has/have + V3

Will/shall/can/may/must

Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2  (ate) 

Had + V3  (had eaten)

Was/were

Did

Did not

Had not + V3

Had been

Was/were + V-ing

Had been + V-ing

Had + V3

Would/should/could/might/had to

could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been

 




Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat

Direct Indirect

Now 

Today

Tomorrow 

 

 

Next… 

Last… 

 

…ago 

Yesterday 

 

The day before yesterday

Here

This

These Then 

That day

The next day

The day after

The following day

A day later

The… after

The following…

The…before

The previous …

The preceeding

…before

…earlier

The day before

The previous day

The preceeding day

Two day before

There

That

those

 

Contoh Soal


1. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday?

Raul         : Of course. He said ____ the previous day.

a. had gone to his country   d. he went to his country

b. he has gone to his country  e. he goes to his country

c. he will go to his country

Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past, indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect)


2. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday?

Jenifer   : What did the teacher want to know, Ferdy?

Ferdy     : he wanted to know ____

a. if Mary was absent   d. that Mary had been absent

b. why Mary was absent   e. why Mary had been absent

c. why was Mary absent

Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect)


3. Mother   : Don’t be so noisy, Herman. The baby is sleeping.

Herman  : Okay, mom.

Rudy      : What did your mother just told you?

Herman  : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping.

a. I wasn’t so noisy   d. I am very noisy

b. not to be so noisy   e. to be not so noisy

c. don’t be noisy

Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be)



4.    Doctor   : Open your mouth!

   Mother  : What did the doctor tell you?

   Son       : The doctor told me ___

   a. that I open his mouth   d. to open my mouth

   b. if I opened my mouth   e. opened my mouth

   c. to open my mouth

    Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O)


5. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken?

Mother asked me ____

a. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken

b. whether I want meatball or fried chicken

c. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken

d. that I want meatball or fried chicken

e. if I want meatball or fried chicken

      Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) 


Soal-Soal Latihan


1. Head master  : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning?

Jani               :  I am sorry. I got a headache.

The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning.

a. I hadn’t cleaned    d. he headn’t cleaned

b. he does not clean   e. he would not clean

c. he hasn’t cleaned


2. Anto : I am sorry Lina. I forgot to bring your book.

Ari    : What did he say, Lina?

   Lina  : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book.

   a. has forgotten    d. forgets

   b. had forgotten    e. forgot

   c. would forget

3. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside.

   Mother said, “ ___________”

   a. Mira closed the window. It is windy outside.

   b. Closed the window, Mira. It is windy outside.

   c. Mira closed the window. It was windy outside.

   d. Does Mira close the window. It was windy outside.

   e. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside.


4.    “What are you doing now?”, he asked.

   He asked me ____

   a. what are you were doing now  d. what I was doing then.

   b. what were you doing now.  e. what I am doing now.

   c. what I was doing then


5.   “Is John coming to the party tonight?”

   “yes, he asked me ____”.

   a. If he could go with us   d. going with us

   b. can he go with us   e. wether he goes with us

   c. he went with us


6.    My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes.

   a. do not spend    d. not spending

   b. not to spend    e. not spend

   c. did not spend


7.    The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. Slamet.

   a. did I have an appointment  d. when is my appointment

   b. how was my appointment  e. that I had an appointment

   c. whether I had appointment


8.    “don’t make noise, children”, she said.

a. She told the children don’t make noise  

b. She said the children didn’t make noise 

c. She didn’t say the children should noise 

d. She told the children not to make noise.

e. She didn’t tell the children to make noise


9.    My friend said to me, “Can I find you a hotel?”. Mean____

   a. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel.

   b. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel.

   c. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel.

   d. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him.

   e. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel.


10. Father said, “Finish your work!”

   The indirect form is: Father told me ____

   a. finish your work    d. to finish your work

   b. finished your work    e. to finish my work

   c. that I finish my work 


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Contoh soal FUNCTIONAL SKILL

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 Contoh soal

1. Fred : Juda, the telephone rang twelve times. What were you doing?

    Juda:  I____ Javanese dancing, “Srimpi”.

    a. practised                      d. have been practising

    b. was parctising             e. will be practising

    c. have practised

      Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense)


2. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years.   

The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children.

    Iwan : Yes, they are succesful. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably.

    a. works                          d. has been working

    b. worked                        e. will have worked

    c. is working

      Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri)

3.   Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. When did you do it?

Sri    :  I did while you ____ the yard.

a. clean                           d. were cleaning

b. cleaned                       e. have been cleaning

c. had cleaned

Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri)


4. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter?

Hadi   : Oh sorry. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year.

a. am living                      d. will have lived

b. was living                     e. have been living

c. have to live

Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri)


5. Vina : When did you get the letter?

Fani  : Yesterday. My family ____ when the postman arrived.

a. have lunch                      d. will have had lunch

b. will have lunch               e. have been having lunch

c. were having lunch

Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. 

When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri)


Soal-Soal Latihan

1. If we don”t hurry, the meeting ___ by the time we get there.

a. would have started                    d. will start

b. will have started                        e. starts

c. will be started


2. The librarian suddenly heard a noise.

Librarian : What was the noise?

Student    : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table.

a. carry                                          d. am carrying

b. carried                                       e. have carried

c. was carrying


3. Ann has been looking for a job for six month.

This sentence means that Ann ___.

a. has got a new job  d. has stopped looking for a job

b. has worked for six months e. started to work 6 months a go

c. is still looking for a job

4. When airport are located in the center of citied, they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life.

a. caused    d. were causing

b. causes    e. have caused

c. will cause


5. Agam : Where will we go next holiday?

Joko   : What about Bali?

Agam : That’s OK, but I ____ there many times.

a. am    d. will be

b. was    e. will have been

c. have been


6. My father is still in Bali. He ____ there for three weeks.

   a. is    d. has been

   b. was    e. have been

   c. had been 


7. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. I forget to bring your book.

   Ary   : What did he say Lina?

   Lina  : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book.

   a. has forgotten   d. forgets

   b. had forgotten   e. forgot

   c. would forget


8. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. Is it right?

Student  : Yes, sir. He ____ ill for a week.

   a. was    d. would be

   b. has been    e. will have been

   c. had been


9. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. Learn all these.

Student  : All right, sir. I ____ them by then.

   a. learn    d. will be learning

   b. have learnt   e. will have learnt

   c. am learning


10. Reni goes to her university every morning. She studies business. You can’t meet her at her house at 10.00 tomorrow. She ___ the lectures.

   a. will be attending  d. has attended

   b. has been attending  e. attended

   c. would be attended 


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FUNCTIONAL SKILL

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 FUNCTIONAL SKILL 


1. Offering Help

There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common: 

 

May I help you? 

Can I help you? 

Are you looking for something? 

Would you like some help? 

Do you need some help? 

What can I do for you today? 

Could I help you? 

How can I be of assistance to you? 

How can I be of help to you?

What can I help you - What can I do for you? 

How can I assist you?

How can I help you?

Let me help you?

Do you want me to help you?

Shall I …?

 


Respond offering help

Receiving Refusing

Yes please, Sure, 

Why not, 

Ofcourse, 

Certainly, 

I’d love to, 

It’s a good idea, 

That’s great. No, thanks, 

Please don’t bother, 

I’d love to but…, 

That’s great but…   

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks:

Would you like…?, 

Would you care for …?, 

Why don’t you have…?, 

How about having …? 

May I offer you …? 


Example:

Offering Responses

- Would you like some bread? Yes, please.

- Would you care for some coffee? No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee.

- Why don’t you have some biscuit, please? Thanks, I’d love to. 



2. Introducing your self and other people


Introducing your self Introducing people

I’d like to introduce myself. 

My I introduce myself?

Let me introduce myself! 

I want to introduce myself I’d like you to meet … (name) 

This is my friend/boss/etc…(name)

Have you met…(name)?

May I introduce you to …(name/occupation)

Let me introduce you to ….

I want to introduce you to ….

1. This is my friend, Jack.                                        Hi Jack. I'm Linda

    my brother, Bob. 

    my sister, Cindy. 

    my father, Mr. Harris. 

    my mother, Mrs. Harris. 

    my teacher, Ms. Watson. 

    my student, Carrie. 

    my friend, Mary Jones. 

    my boss, Mr. Ritter. 

    my co-worker, Penny Pitcher. 


2. Nice to meet you.                                            Nice to meet you too. 

Pleased to meet you. Likewise. 

Very nice to meet you. And you.

It's a pleasure to meet you.


How to introduce people (in formal situations)

Introducing yourself 

I just wanted to introduce myself, 

I don't believe we've met before, 

I don't think we've actually met formally yet, my name is...

I'm...

Introducing someone else

I'd like to introduce you to… 

There's someone I'd like you to meet, this is… 

Have you met…? 

Exercises:

Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. 

Hi, Retno. My name is Adib.

this is Retno. I’m Arnys.


Situation: Adib, Arnys, and Retno are new students. They meet at the students’ orientation course.

Adib : Hi, Are you a new student?

Arnys : Yes, I am. By the way, are you a new student, too?

Adib : I’m a new student too. 1) ______________________

Arnys : 2) _________________ Well, Adib, 3) __________________

She was my classmate in the Junior High School.

Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you?

Retno : Nice to meet you too.

Adib : Anyway, we still have half an hour before the class starts. Shall we go to the canteen?, Arnys?

Retno : Okay.


3. Greeting (memberi salam)


Greetings Language in the programme



Good morning sir

madam

Mr Jones

Mrs Smith How are you? 

It's lovely to see you again!

It's been a long time, hasn't it?

How are things with you?

afternoon

evening


Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings

Working in the service industry, e.g. a restaurant, hotel, travel agent

Greeting someone older than you

At work, when speaking to your superiors

Meeting a VIP e.g. a politician 

Being polite to someone you don't know very well


Expressions Functions

Good morning/afternoon/evening.

(formal)

Hi!/Hello! (informal) Greeting someone

How are you, Den?

How are you doing Asking how someone is

I’m fi ne, thanks.

Very well, thanks.

Not so bad, thanks. Saying how you are

See you.

Good bye.

Bye.

See you soon /later /tomorrow. Saying good bye


Exercises:

Complete the dialogues below with correct 

expressions.

1) Arnys : …

Ruben : Very well, thank you.

2) Ayu : Good evening.

Denias : …

3) Andi : How are you doing?

Retno : …

4) Adib : See you tomorrow.

Virga : …

5) Anita : Hi!

Marcell : …


4. Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)

Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English.

Do you want to . . .

Do you wanna . . . (informal)

Would you like to . . . (more polite)

How about (V+ing) ?

How would you like to . . .

let’s + V1  

Why don’t we …? 

I’d like to invite you to…

I wonder if you’d like to

Some responds of inviting.

Refusing Receiving

- I’m sorry I can’t 

- I’d like to but…

- I’m afraid I can’t

- No, let’s not. - I’d love to 

- I’d like very much

- I’d be happy/glad to

  accept

- Yes, I’d be delighted to.

- That’s good ide


Polite invitations 

Checking someone is not busy

Are you free on Friday?

Are you busy on Friday? 

What are you doing on Friday?

Would you like...?

Would you like ...a chocolate bar?

...to come to my house for dinner? 

I wondered / was wondering

I wondered ...if you'd like to come to my house for dinner

I was wondering

Other expressions

I would very much like it if you could come along

Shall I bring a bottle?


5. Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)

Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.

Expressing Responses

Thank you 

Thank you very much

Thanks.

Thank you very much for… (kata benda)

I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun)

I appreciate it. You are welcome. 

That’s all right

Not at all

Don’t mention it

Thet’s all right

Any time

Exercise

How would you express thanks in the following situations? 

a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday.

(What do you say?) 

Example: "Thank you so much. I really like it!" 

b) Someone has just bought dinner for you. 

c) Someone returned your lost wallet. 

d) Someone helped carry your grocery bags. 

e) Someone complimented you on your necktie. 


6. Congratulations (ucapan selamat)

 

Ungkapan Respon

Congratulations 

Congratulations on … 

I’d like to congratulate you.

I’d like to congratulate you on…

It was great to hear…

It was to hear about….

Happy birthday to you.

Happy new year.

Good luck!

Have a nice holiday Thank you 

Thank you and the same to you

Thank you. I need it.

Thank you very much.  


Expression Function

You look cute with that hat. Complimenting

Congratulations! Congratulating

Thank you for saying so.

Thank you. Responding to compliments and congratulations


Other expression

Expression Function

What a …!

That’s a very nice …

I like your … Complimenting

Congratulations on winning …

I’d like to congratulate you on …

I must congratulate you on your …

Well done. Congratulating

Thanks.

Oh, not really.

It’s nice of you to say so.

How kind of you to say so. Responding to compliments and congratulations



Special Days - Social Language

It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days, holidays and other special occasions. Here are some of the most common: 

Birthdays 

Happy birthday!

Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age - use an ordinal number) birthday!

Many happy returns! 

Wedding / Anniversary 

Congratulations!

Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number - use an ordinal number) anniversary!

Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast)

Special Holidays 

Merry Christmas!

Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.

All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. 

When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas, it is also common to ask them what they received: 

Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus?

Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? 

Special Occasions 

Congratulations on your promotion!

All the best for your ...

I'm so proud of you! 


7. Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)

A. Expressing of sympathy on minor 

a. What’s shame 

b. What’s pity 

c. That’s a nuisance 

d. That’s too bad

e. That’s pity

f. Oh dear

B. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident

a. Goodness! 

b. How terrible! 

c. How Awful!

d. How dreadful!

C. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances

a. I’m sorry to hear that 

b. I’m sorry about that 

c. I’m really sorry for them 

d. Please accept my deepest sympathy

e. Send my deepest condolence!

f. Please accept my condolences!


8. Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)


Pleasure/senang Displeasure/tidak senang

It’s really delightful/Iam delighted 

I’m satisfied

That’s great

That’s wonderful

It’s really a great pleasure I’m dissatisfied 

We are fed up with…

I feel dosappointed

She is extremely displeased


Other expressions

Expression Pleasure Expression Displeasure

a. I’m so happy ….

b. I feel ….

c. How happy to …

d. I’m very pleasure with …

e. It’s a pleasure to …

f. Pleasure

g. Great!

h. Terrific!

i. I’m pleased.

j. I enjoyed it

k. I love it.

l. It was terrifi c.

m. I’m delighted. a. I feel …

b. I’m really sad to …

c. ….. feel unpleased with ….

d. I feel disappointed.



9. Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)


Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang, kita dapat gunakan ungkapan:

Well done!

Great! Good work

I am satisfied with your work

You did well

Your job is satisfactory

I am so happy about this

I’m glad to what you’ve done

It’s really satisfying

Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang, kita dapat gunakan:

I’m not satisfied with work

You haven’t done well enough

I am really dissappointed

Sorry, but your work is not satisfactory

Oh, no!

It’s not very nice

It’s really not good enough


Informal situation

Satisfaction Dissatisfaction

… very pleased with …

… content with …

… satisfi ed with …

… very delighted with … … displeased with …

… discontented with …

… dissatisfi ed with …

… disappointed with …


Formal situation

Satisfaction Dissatisfaction

Super! 

Great! 

Terrifi c! 

Fantastic! 

Smashing! Horrible!

Very sad!

Annoying!

Disappointing!

Frustrating!






10. Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat)


Asking Opinion Giving opinion

How was the trip? 

How do you like your new house?

How do you think of Rina’s idea?

How do you feel about this dicition?

What is your opinions of the movie?

What are your feelings about it? I think (that)…. 

In my opinion….

As I see, …

If you ask me, I feel… 


Other examples

Those expressions are used to ask for opinions.

 What do you think of this refrigerator?

 So, do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs?


Those expressions are used to give opinions.

 I think the other one’s better.

 In my opinion, you should buy the florescent light bulbs.


Here are other expressions that you can also use:

Asking Opinion Giving opinion

What is your opinion? 

What do you think of...? 

How do you feel about…? 

How do you see …? I think …

I believe …

I feel …

It seems to me …



11. Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju)      

Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain, kita bisa mengatakan:

 

So do I

Yes, I agree with you

It is certainly

Exactly

That’s what I want to say

I am with you

I am on your side

Yes, I agree

That’s quite true

You’re absolutely right!

I’m of exactly the same opinion

I think so

I go along that line

I agree completely

That's true.

Absolutely.

Definitely.

I couldn't agree more.

I know what you mean.

I suppose you’re right

 

Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain, kita bisa mengatakan:

 

Well, I don’t think so

I don’t think that is true

I disagree with …

I wouldn’t say that

Exactly not

I can’t say so

On contrary

I don’t buy that idea

I’m afraid I entirely disagree

I can’t agree

I don’t think it’s very good

Surely not

I am sorry, but I have to disagree

I couldn’t agree less

I’m not sure I can agree 

 

Other expression of disagreeing

Useful vocabulary for disagreeing

no

I don't agree

that's not true 

I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below)


(quite direct) 

(quite formal)

Examples:

No, I don't think that's what happened. 

No, that's not a good idea. 


12. Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)

 

Fear Respon

I am afraid 

I am feared

I am scared

I am terrified

The sound is horrifying Don’t be afraid 

There is nothing to be afraid of

It is nothing

Anciety Respon

I am worried about… 

I am anxious to know about…

I wondered if…

That made me worried

I have been thinking about ….

I am afraid if… Take is easy 

Calm down

I know you are worried but…

It is not a big deal

Don’t worry

Stay cool



13. Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)

 

Pain Relief

Ouch! 

That was hurt

It is painful

It hurts me

I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache

I feel sore all over

My eyes hurt I’m very relieved to hear… 

Finally, it was over

I feel relieved

I feel much better

I’m glad it’s over

That’s a great relief

I’m extremely glad to hear…

Thank goodness for that

Marvellous

What a relief!


Other expressions

1. Expressions of Pain

I am suffering from a relapse.

I feel sick./I feel ill.

I’m sick.

Ugh, it’s very painful!

Oh, it’s killing me!

2. Expressions of Relief

It’s a relief to know that ....

Thank God for ....

I’m glad it was done.

Thank goodness!

Thank heavens!

I’m glad about …!

It’s a great relief!

Whew


14. Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)

 

Like Dislike

I love it 

I like it

I am keen on it

I am crazy about it

We all enjoy

(benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea I don’t really like it 

I dislike it

I am not really interested in…

I can’t enjoy…

(benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea

I can’t stand

I hate it

Language for expressing likes 

Subject Adverb Verb Noun

I

(really)

don't like 

can't stand

it

them

ice cream

Chinese food

playing football

watching TV 


About the adverb 'really'.

This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence.

For example:

"I really don't like it!"

This means you have a strong dislike of something.


BUT

"I don't really like it."

This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike.


Language for expressing likes 

Subject Adverb Verb Noun Extra 

I (really) like

love it

them

ice cream

Chinese food

playing football

watching TV a lot 


15. Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)

 

Embarrassment Annoyance

I am embarrassed 

I feel ashamed

Oh my God

Shame on me

I don’t feel comfortable

I feel awkward I am annoyed 

I had enough with it

I can’t bear it any longer

You made me annoyed

You are such a pain in the neck

You made me sick

 

There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance.

Formal Situations Informal Situations

I’m extremely displeased with …

… is very irritating.

I’m extremely unhappy about this. … really makes me mad.

I cannot stand …

Why on earth he didn’t …?


There are some other expressions to show embarrassment, such as:

In Formal Situations In Informal Situations

Formal Situations Informal Situations

What an embarrassment!

I must say that it’s an embarrassment.

That’s a real embarrassment. What a shame!

It’s my embarrassment to ...

I was so ashamed.


16. Request (permintaan)

 

Request Acceptance Refusal

Would it be possible for you to 

Would you be so kind as to

Would you…,please?

Would you mind …?

Any chance of…

Can you…? I should be delighted to come 

By all means

I have no objection

I’d be happy to

Sure

Yeah

OK

No problem

Mmm I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go 

I’m afraid it’s not possible

I’m afraid not

Sorry

No, I won’t

Not likely

You must be joking

 

Granting Request

In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions:

Ayu : Will you tell me about it?

Palupi : Sure, I will.

Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes.

Palupi : OK.

Sure, I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.

Here are other expressions that you can use:

 Alright.

 Certainly.

 Right away.

 Of course.


17. Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan)

 

Complaint Blame

I’m not at all satisfied with the service 

I really do/must objec to the service

I take great exception to…

I want to complain about…

This is crazy! You’re the one to blame 

It’s your fault!

It’s your mistake!

You’re wrong

I think you're the only person who could have done it.

It's your fault for (doing something).

There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. Here are some of the most common: 

I'm sorry to have to say this but... 

I'm sorry to bother you, but... 

Maybe you forgot to... 

I think you might have forgotten to... 

Excuse me if I'm out of line, but... 

There may have been a misunderstanding about... 

Don't get me wrong, but I think we should... 

Expressing shocked disagreement

But that's ridiculous!

unfair!

unreasonable!

A negative structure

It's just not fair to charge us for the starters! 

simply


18. Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)

 

Regret Apology

Much to my regret 

Sadly, I ….

Unfortunately

I’m terribly sorry

I honestly regret that I …

Sorry, I … Please accept my apologies for what I did 

Please forgive me for what I did

I am extremely sorry

I really must apologies

May I offer you my sincerest apologies?


Language for saying sorry 

To emphasise how you feel Examples 

I'm really sorry... I'm really sorry, Pete, I didn't mean to lose your book. 

I'm so sorry... I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday, Oliver! 

To say why you're sorry Examples

Sorry about... Sorry about the mess. I'll clear up later. 

Sorry for... Sorry for taking your DVD. 

To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! 

I'd like to apologise for... I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. 

Vocabulary around saying sorry

to apologise 

to say sorry, to ask for forgiveness, to express regret 

an exclamation 

a word, phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly, often through surprise or anger 

to hurt someone's feelings 

to make someone feel upset or unhappy 

a misunderstanding 

this can mean 'a small disagreement'

trouble 

unhappiness, distress, worry or danger 

a hard time 

a difficult time 

to be out of order (informal) 

to be impolite or rude 


19. Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan)

 

Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan

I think there is possibility to … 

I sassume/believe…

In all probability,…

it is going to be possible for me to…

that will probably …

it’s quite possible … Do you think he/it could…? 

Would you say we’re capable of…?

Are you capable of…?

Are you able to…?

Do you have any experience of…?

Can you…?

Do you know how to…?

Do you think you can…?


Expressions for Discussing Possibilities

• Would there be any possibility of …?

• Do you think we are capable of …?

• Would it be possible for (somebody) to …?

• I think that would be possible ....

• Is it possible to …?

• Yes, there is a possibility ....



NOTE :

 

1. Several ways of indicating possibility are:

It’s possible that he’ll win the game.

There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the game.

possibly he hasn’t heard the news yet.

There is a good chance that …..

There is a little chance that …..

It is impossible

Probably She is on the way

May be he needs more time

She might not be at home


2. Expressions used to ask possibility or capability of doing something are:

Would there be any possibility of …..?

Do you think we are capable of ….?

Is it possible for me to …?

Are we capable enough to …?

3. Expressions to show capability are :

I’m capable of doing it

I can do it

There is a chance that I can do it.

I’m able to do it

I have the ability to do it.

4. Expressions to show incapability are:

I can’t do it

I’m not sure I’m capable of doing it.

I don’t think I have the ability

I don’t feel capable of doing it

I don’t know how to do it.

 


II. LANGUAGE USAGE 


A. TENSES 

TENSES POLA KET. WAKTU

Present Tense 

(Menyatakan kebiasaan hingga sekarang masih dilakukan) V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he,she,it) 

      (-)  S+Do/Does not + V¹ 

            Do utk S= I,you,they,we

            Does utk S= he,she,it

           She goes to school everyday

           She does not go to school everyday

N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv

           She is beautiful Every… 

Usyally

Always dll 

 

Present Continuous 

(Menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing 

      She is not going to school everyday Now 

At present

At this moment

To day

Present Perfect 

(Menyatakan perbuatan/tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindakan tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) V= (+) S + have/has + V3 

            Have utk S= I,you,they,we

            Has utk S= he,she,it

       Father has gone to work for 12 hours 

N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv

       Father has been at his office since 12

       hours ago. Lately 

Recently

For 

Since

already

yet

lately

just

Past Tense 

(Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + V2 

      (-) S + did not + V¹ 

           Did utk semua Subjek

N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv

            Was utk S= I,he,she,it

            Were utk S= you,they,we Yesterday 

Last…

…ago

Past Perfect Tense 

(Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + had + V3 

            Had utk semua Sabjek (S) 

N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv Before/when + S + V2

Past Perfect Continuous 

(Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau, aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) V= (+) S + had been + V-ing For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2

Future tense 

(Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan dilakukan di waktu yang akan datang)  

V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ 

            Will utk semua Sabjek (S)

            Shall utk S = I,we

N= (+) S + will/shall +be + adj/n/adv  

Tomorrow 

Next…

Future Continuous 

(Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang)  

V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing  

At this time tomorrow 

At ten tomorrow

Future Perfect 

(Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang)  

V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 

N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been +adj/n/  

By + ket.waktu

Future Perfect Continuous 

(Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang)  

 

V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been + V-ing  

 

By + ket.waktu

Past Future Tense 

(Menyatakan perbuatan/keadaan yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana)  

V= (+) S + would/should + V¹  

N= (+) S + would/should + be + adj/n/adv  

Yesterday 

Last…

Just now

If + simple past

Past Future Perfect Tense 

(menyatakan suatu pengandaian pada masa lampau, sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi)  

V= (+) S + would/should + have +V3 

N= (+) S + would/should + have been + adj/n/adv  

If + past perfect

Past Perfect Continuous 

(Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung)  

V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing  

By + ket.waktu


Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: 

Simple Present V¹/do,does/am,is,are

Simple past V2/did/was,were

Perfect have/has/had + V3/been

Future/modal (present) 

Future/modal (past) will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be 

would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be

Continuous Tobe + v-ing


TO BE

Present 

Past

Perfect

Future/modal Am, is, are 

Was, were

Been

be


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8. Aplikasi Laundry Online Rp 900 ribu

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Contoh Software Administrasi Bimbel
Ketik contohadmin.aqilacourse.net
dengan Google Chrome di Laptop
username/Nomor HP 1
Password 1

Contoh Aplikasi Portal Info Bimbel
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.aqila.contohgobimbel

Info Lengkap Tentang Analisa Bakat
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.aqila.sjblangsung

Contoh Aplikasi Toko Online
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.aqila.eshopsample
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info lengkap di
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Kemitraan Bimbingan Belajar


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Aplikasi Android memakai Nama Bimbel Anda sendiri
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Pengalaman Kami
Beberapa Video Pengalaman Kami dalam mendirikan Bimbel dapat dilihat di PlayList berikut :
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Tips
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Aplikasi Konten Belajar

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Lama Pembuatan 15 s.d. 30 hari

Tujuan Aplikasi

  • Promosi Bimbel
  • Landing Page Bimbel dengan Tombol WhatsApp di Pojok Kanan Bawah.
  • Share Konten Belajar (Telah terisi) bisa dihapus dan ditambah.
  • Share Kegiatan Bimbel seperti Wall Facebook.
  • Hemat Kertas untuk Modul, Soal TryOut dan Soal Lomba.

 

Mode Lanjutan
Aplikasi bisa digunakan sebagai media jual konten belajar (Hanya yang berlangganan yang bisa akses).

Biaya berjalan
Rp 10 per aplikasi dibuka

Contoh Aplikasi Terapan
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.bimbel.aqilamagelang

Contoh Aplikasi untuk Simulasi Input Soal dll
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.aqila.belajarmandiri
Login jadi Admin dengan HP 0123456789 Password 1234

Video Keterangan
https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNYE6uj1u6t8ygV5DHw5bM2E1WciJ0Ew0

NB :
Harga akan naik sesuai dengan Banyaknya Konten yang telah terisi.
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Bimbel Aqila Magelang


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Offline di Magelang
Online di Indonesia

Tanjunganom Banjarnegoro Mertoyudan Magelang
WhatsApp https://wa.me/6285640451319

Daftar Video dan Modul Belajar Lainnya bisa di download di Aplikasi
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Daftar Harga Les di Bimbel Aqila Magelang

Bimbel SD 8 Sesi

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  • Privat Online - Rp 280K
  • Kelompok di Bimbel - Rp 115K

 

Bimbel SMA 8 Sesi

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  • Privat di Rumah - Rp 400K
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SBMPTN - UTBK - Soshum - 12 Sesi
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Privat Mengaji

  • di Bimbel Rp 20K/45 menit
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Pendaftaran - Rp 50K

 

Analisa Bakat Online


Analisa Bakat dengan Sidik Jari Online

Info Lengkap silahkan download di Aplikasi
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Syarat Utama
memiliki Scanner Dokument
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Harga Rp 100K/analisa
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Kirimkan :
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Mohon Lihat Video Berikut untuk Cara Pengambilan Data
https://youtu.be/SywA5qmznE0

Video Selengkapnya di PlayList Berikut
https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNYE6uj1u6t8FWriHO0kCNnIvNHdshHVo

Manfaat Analisa :

  • Mengetahui IQ dan EQ Bawaan untuk menyesuaikan kecepatan belajar.
  • Mengetahui Keseimbangan Otak Kiri dan Kanan dimana hal ini akan mempengaruhi Gaya Kerja, Cara Berfikir, Tingkah laku dan Posisi Kerja.
  • Mengetahui Bakat Alami, Kecerdasan Majemuk, Sifat Bawaan untuk selanjutnya bisa dikembangkan dan Mengantisipasi Kelemahan.
  • Memperkirakan Jurusan Pendidikan yang cocok.
  • Memperkirakan Posisi Kerja yang lebih relevan.
  • Memperkirakan Pekerjaan yang dengan Kemungkinan Sukses lebih banyak.
  • Mengetahui Kemampuan yang Paling menonjol yang ada pada diri Anda.

 

Hasil Analisa
Hasil Analisa Dalam bentuk PDF 13 Halaman dikirim langsung melalui WhatsApp.

Contoh Hasil Analisa
Kuantitatif
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_Gj4QoedOtds84olAmvy0nZTbcbKEe71/view?usp=sharing

Kualitatif (jika Gagal Kuantitatif)
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1CJQiHUzeuMVOoAzTnSUMcQeMLOLSMEtR/view?usp=sharing

Info Lebih Lanjut
Website http://fitalis.net
Android App https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.aqila.sjblangsung
WhatsApp
https://api.whatsapp.com/send?phone=6281391005464&text=Saya%20Ingin%20Analisa%20Sidik%20Jari%20Bakat%20Online,%20Nama%20Saya,%20Umur%20Saya
Videp PlayList
https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNYE6uj1u6t8FWriHO0kCNnIvNHdshHVo

Kemitraan Analisa Bakat dengan Sidik Jari


Kemitraan Analisa Bakat

Info Lengkap Tentang Analisa Bakat
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.aqila.sjblangsung

Syarat
Memiliki Scanner, Printer dan Komputer
(Scanner bisa menggunakan Scanner di Printer fotocopy)
Mau Belajar dan Mampu Menerangkan Hasil Analisa

Silahkan Pelajari terlebih dahulu penjelasan Hasil Analisa di
https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNYE6uj1u6t8FWriHO0kCNnIvNHdshHVo

Manfaat

  • Dapat membuka Outlet Analisa Bakat dengan Sidik Jari
  • Lokasi Anda terdaftar di Aplikasi Analisa Bakat Online
  • Mendapatkan Harga Reseller (Hubungi Kami untuk Detilnya)

 

Biaya Pendaftaran Kemitraan
Rp 500 ribu
Sudah termasuk 5 Analisa untuk Simulasi Pengiriman Data dan Percobaan Penjelasan Hasil

Alur Kerja

  • Pelanggan di-scan 10 jari dan Telapak Tangan
  • Kirimkan Hasil Scan melalui WA atau email aqilabakat@gmail.com
  • Setelah jadi Hasil Analisa dikirimkan ke Anda,
  • silahkan cetak dan berikan ke Pelanggan
  • Jika diperlukan tambahkan sedikit Penjelasan.

 

Untuk lebih mudah memahaminya
Kirimkan Data Anda saat Simulasi Pengiriman Data.

Hubungi Kami https://api.whatsapp.com/send?phone=6281391005464

 

Aplikasi Toko Online


Aplikasi Toko Online dengan Nama Usaha Anda Sendiri

Jasa Pembuatan Aplikasi Android untuk Usaha Penjualan (Toko) dimana Aplikasi Tersebut dibuat dengan Nama Usaha Anda Sendiri dan tentu saja muncul di pencarian PlayStore.
Hal ini akan memberikan Warna Baru untuk Usaha Anda dan tentu saja akan menambah kepercayaan Pelanggan.

Fungsi secara Umum

  • Katalog Produk yang menampilkan seluruh Produk/Dagangan Anda.
  • Lebih mudah untuk di-share dengan hanya satu Link aja, dan seluruh Produk sudah include di dalamnya.
  • Broadcast ke seluruh pengguna dalam bentuk notifikasi dimana Pelanggan tidak merasa terganggu namun informasi tersampaikan.
  • Catatan Transaksi lengkap dengan status pembayaran dan status pengiriman sehingga lebih mudah memantau Kondisi Penjualan.
  • Penjelasan Produk bisa lebih detil dilengkapi dengan Foto, Video dan Teks auto Link.
  • Cetak Nota Pembelian dan Nota antar Barang.
  • Chat ke Administrasi dari Pelanggan sebagai Pusat Informasi.
  • Tombol WhatsApp yang langsung mengarah ke WhatsApp Anda.
  • Profil Usaha lengkap dengan Link Medsos yang terkait.


Apa yang berbeda ?

  • Memakai Nama Usaha Sendiri sehingga Anda tidak perlu ragu dalam memarketingkan Aplikasi tersebut.
  • Multi admin, Aplikasi dapat dibuka oleh banyak Administrator sehingga memberikan peluang membagi pekerjaan.
  • Fungsi berita dapat digunakan sebagai Informasi Produk baru, Aktifitas atau Promo Toko Anda.
  • Notifikasi akan langsung dikirim secara otomatis ke Seluruh Pelanggan ketika Anda menginput Berita,
  • Pengumuman dan Produk Baru. Hal baru seperti ini selalu disukai Masyarakat.
  • Ukuran Aplikasi relatif kecil hanya 10 mb, jadi Calon pelanggan tidak ragu untuk meng-install.
  • Fungsi Hadiah untuk Meningkatkan Jumlah Install.
  • Kategori Produk untuk memudahkan pencarian oleh Pelanggan.
  • Foto Slider depan sebagai Media Promosi Utama.


Kelemahan

  • Katalog Produk akan efektif apabila kurang dari 500 item, sebenarnya bisa lebih dari 10 ribu namun produk akan sulit ditemukan karena fungsi pencarian hanya untuk 3 kata kunci.
  • Pada Tahap awal relatif sulit untuk membuat calon pelanggan meng-install Aplikasi. Hal ini bisa dirangsang dengan Hadiah atau dengan memberikan diskon lebih ketika membeli melalui Aplikasi.


Silahkan coba Aplikasi Sample-nya
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.aqila.eshopsample

Buka menu, pilih Login untuk mencoba menambah produk dan mencoba fungsi-fungsinya
Isi Nomor HP 0123456789 Password 1234

Biaya Pembuatan
Harga Rp 4 juta
sudah termasuk Upload di PlayStore
Mohon Persiapkan Logo, Nama Usaha, HP Pemilik, HP pusat Informasi.

Biaya Berjalan
Aplikasi ini Online artinya bisa berjalan karena ada dukungan Server. Untuk itu ada biaya Rp 10 per Aplikasi dibuka.

Custom Fungsi Tambahan
Ada Biaya Tambahan apabila Anda menghendaki Penambahan Fungsi (Menu) sebesar Rp 3 jt per Fungsi.

Update ke Versi Terbaru
Kedepedannya Aplikasi akan mengalami Penambahan Fungsi dan perbaikan-perbaikan UI.
Untuk mendapatkan ke Versi Terbaru, ada Biaya Update sebesar Rp 300 rb karena Perubahan data dan Script membutuhkan waktu cukup lama.

Pemesanan WhatApps ke https://api.whatsapp.com/send?phone=6281391005464

Aplikasi Laundry Online


Aplikasi Laundry
dengan Nama Laundry Anda Sendiri

Biaya Pembuatan 900 ribu sudah termasuk upload di PlayStore
Lama Pembuatan sekitar 15 s.d. 30 harian.

Jasa Laundry masih akan berkembang layaknya Jasa Ekspedisi (Pengiriman).
Semakin lama orang akan semakin disibukkan dengan Pekerjaan sehingga malas mencuci baju.
Rumah semakin minimalis dan ruang cuci semakin sempit.
Tidak membuat Kondisi rumah berantakan.

Konsep Aplikasi

  • Branding di PlayStore Android dengan Nama Laundry Anda Sendiri.
  • Pelanggan hanya Sekali Klik untuk Penjemputan Cucian.
  • Tracking Kondisi Cucian di Aplikasi.
  • Tombol WhatsApp untuk menghubungi Custumer Service.
  • Biaya Antar Jemput Otomatis / Custom.

 

Contoh Aplikasi
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.aqiladroid.loundryonline

Silahkan Isi data sebagai Pemilik Laundry
Aplikasi tersebut masih contoh sehingga digunakan oleh Banyak Pemilik Laundry, Nantinya setelah Pembelian Hanya personal untuk Laundry Anda Sendiri.

Biaya Bejalan
Rp 10 per Aplikasi dibuka (Sekitar Rp 100 per Paket Cucian)

Syarat
Telah memiliki Logo (JPG/PNG) dan Nama Laundry

Hubungi Kami https://api.whatsapp.com/send?phone=6281391005464

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