The purpose of the text is to tell how and why things occur in scientific and technical fields.
Schematic structure :
1. The general statement or phenomenon of topic discussed
2. Explanation sequences which may be related according to time or cause, or according to both relationships.
3. A concluding statement (optional)
Common grammatical patterns of an explanation text include :
• general and abstract nouns
• action verbs
• simple present tense
• passive voice
• conjunctions of time and cause
Read and answer the question
How Unemployment Occurs
Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. The unemployment rate is used in economic studies and economic indexes such as the United States’ Conference Board’s Index of Leading Indicators. The rate is determined as the percentage of those in the labour force without jobs. There are some of common types of unemployment.
Firstly, frictional unemployment occurs when a worker moves from one job to another job. While he searches for a job he is experiencing frictional unemployment. This is a productive part of the economy, increasing both the worker’s long term welfare and economic efficiency. Secondly, classical or real-wage unemployment occurs when real wages for a job are set above the market-clearing level. This is often ascribed to government intervention, as with the minimum wage, or labour unions. Thirdly, structural unemployment is caused by a mismatch between jobs offered by employers and potential workers. This may pertain to geographical location, skills, and many other factors. If such a mismatch exists, frictional unemployment is likely to be more significant as well. Fourthly, seasonal unemployment occurs when an occupation is not in demand at certain seasons.
Lastly, cyclical or Keynesian unemployment, also known as demand deficient unemployment, occurs when there is not enough aggregate demand for the labour. This is caused by a business cycle recession and wages not falling to meet the equilibrium rate.
Adapted from: Wikipedia free encyclopaedia-last update 190408
1. What is unemployment?
2. How does frictional unemployment occur?
3. How does classical unemployment occur?
4. What is structural employment caused by?
5. When does seasonal unemployment occur?
6. What is caused by a business cycle recession?
7. What do the following words refer to?
a. “he” in paragraph 2 : ________________
b. “this” in paragraph 3 : ________________
Rural Poverty in Indonesia
More than half of Indonesia’s 235 million people are poor. Most struggle to survive on less than US$2 a day, and are at risk of even more severe poverty. Approximately 60 per cent of the populations live in rural areas where agriculture is the main source of livelihood. Poverty has always been a concern in Indonesia. First, in the 1970s the country entered a period of steady economic growth, accompanied by progressive social development. Then in 1997 and 1998 the Indonesian economy came close to collapse, when a financial crisis swept through South-Eastern Asia. Before the crisis, 16.8 per cent of the country’s families were officially classified as poor. At the height of the financial upheaval, the proportion of poor households in the country doubled.
Although the crisis hit harder in urban areas, recovery was also more rapid in the cities and towns. Instead, in rural areas, poverty is greater than it was before the financial crisis. Millions of small farmers, farm workers and fishers are materially and financially unable to tap into the opportunities offered by years of economic growth.
Then, the financial crisis also took a heavy toll on the government’s budget. At a time when government spending was needed to help reduce economic hardships weighing on poor people, social expenditures such as spending for health and education had to be cut. Even today, the government’s heavy debt burden means that there are few resources to help finance poverty reduction programe.
Write the Indonesiameaning and memorizing
struggle(kb) : ………………..
rural (ks) : ………………...
progressive (ks) : …………………
collapse (kb) : ………………….
financial (ks) : ………………….
upheaval (kb) : ………………….
toll (kb) : ………………….
hardships (kb) : ………………….
expenditures (kb) : …………………
debt (kb) : …………………
reduction (kb) : …………………
What is Language Death?
Language death is a process that affects speech communities where the level of linguistic competence that speakers possess of a given language idiom is decreased.
Total language death occurs when there are no speakers of a given language idiom remaining in a population where the idiom was previously used (i.e. when all native speakers die). Language death may affect any language idiom, including dialects and languages.
Language death may manifest itself in one of the following ways:
• gradual language death
• bottom-to-top language death
• radical language death
• linguicide (a.k.a. sudden language death, language death by genocide, physical language death, biological language death.
The most common process leading to language death is one in which a community of speakers of one language becomes bilingual in another language, and gradually shifts allegiance to the second language until they cease to use their original (or heritage) language. This is a process of assimilation which may be voluntary or may be forced upon a population. Speakers of some languages, particularly regional or minority languages may decide to abandon them based on economic or utilitarian grounds, in favour of languages regarded as having greater utility or prestige. Languages can also die when their speakers are wiped out by genocide, disease, or the rare event of devastating natural catastrophe.
A language is often declared to be dead even before the last native speaker of the language has died. If there are only a few elderly speakers of a language remaining, and they no longer use that language for communication, then the language is effectively dead. A language that has reached such a reduced stage of use is generally considered moribund. The process of
attrition occurs when intergenerational transmission of a “heritage language”, mother tongue or native language has effectively stopped. This is rarely a sudden event, but a slow process of each generation learning less and less of the language, until its use is relegated to the domain of traditional use, such as in poetry and song. For example, a family’s adults may speak in an older native language, but when they have children, they may not pass on this language, and therefore the language dies in that family. One example of this process reaching its conclusion is that of the Dalmatian language.
1. What is language death?
2. When does total language death occur?
3. How does the process of the death happen?
4. When is the language declared to be dead?
5. When does the process of attrition occur?
6. What is Dalmatian language?
Origins of Slang
Slang is the use of informal words and expressions to describe an object or condition. Slang is vocabulary that is meant to be interpreted quickly but not necessarily literally, as slang words or terms are often a metaphor or an allegory
First, one use of slang is to circumvent social taboos, as mainstream language tends to shy away from evoking certain realities. For this reason, slang vocabularies are particularly rich in certain domains, such as violence, crime and drugs and sex. An interesting fact about the word slang is that it was originally a slang term for the old French phrase “sale langue”, which translated into English means “dirty language”. Alternatively, slang can grow out of mere familiarity with the things described. Among wine connoisseurs, Cabernet Sauvignon might be known as “Cab Sav”, Chardonnay as “Chard” and so on; this means that naming the different wines expends less superfluous effort. It also serves as a shared code among connoisseurs.
Then, even within a single language community, slang tends to vary widely across social, ethnic, economic, and geographic strata. Slang sometimes grows more and more common until it becomes the dominant way of saying something, at which time it is regarded as mainstream, acceptable language (e.g. the Spanish word caballo), while at other times it may fall into disuse. Numerous slang terms pass into informal mainstream speech, and sometimes into formal speech, though this may involve a change in meaning or usage.
Besides, slang very often involves the creation of novel meanings for existing words. It is very common for such novel meanings to diverge significantly from the standard meaning. Thus, “cool” and “hot” can both mean “very good”, “impressive” or “good looking”.
Slang terms are often known only within a clique or in group. For example, Leet (“Leetspeak” or “1337”), originally was popular only among certain Internet sub-cultures, such as crackers (malicious “hackers”) and online video gamers. During the 1990s and 2000s, however, Leet became increasingly more commonplace on the Internet, and has even spread outside of Internet-based communication and into spoken languages. Another type of slang, with roots in Internet culture, is texting language (txt or chatspeak), which is widely used in instant messaging on the Internet (AOL speak) and mobile phones (SMS language).
Certain dialects may be viewed by some people as slang, such as Hawaiian Creole English and African American Vernacular English.
1. What is slang according to the text?
2. Why is slang used?
3. How does slang sometimes grow?
4. What does slang very often involve?
5. What happened during the 1990s and 2000s?
6. What dialects may be viewed as slang according to the text?
7. What does the word “it” in paragraph 2 refer to?
How Venus Eclipse Happens
On May 16, 2010, people in most regions in the world have seen a very rare natural phenomenon. It was Venus eclipse. It was very rare amazing natural event. It was reported that the Venus eclipse will seen again in the future in 2050. Do you know how this rare Venus eclipse happens?
Well, actually Venus eclipse is like Sun eclipse. Venus eclipses occurs when the position of the earth, moon and Venus is parallel. Venus planet will slowly disappear for a moment because it is covered the surface of the Moon. Venus planet seems to move to the back side of the Moon.
The moon and planets are sharing a similar apparent path in the sky. That is why, it is not unusual for the moon to appear to pass close to Venus. In fact, the moon appears somewhere near it about once a month. However, most people don’t see these events because they are visible in the evening sky only half the time, and then only for a short period after sunset. The apparent closeness varies from month to month as well.
1. What is the purpose of the text above ?
2. What is the text above ?
3. It was very rare . the word it refer to….. ( paragraph 1 )
4. What is the synonym of the word appear.
5. What is the antonym of the word near.
The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). A tsunami is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or a sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.
A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries.
Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunami, and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.
As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.
Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.
1. What is the text above ?
2. What is tsunami ?
3. Why is tsunami always bring great damage ?
4. What is the synonym of the word powerfully ?
5. which sentence is correct based on the text above !
What You Need to Know about Drugs
Drugs are chemicals that change the way a person’s body works. You have probably heard that drugs are bad for you, but what does that mean and why are they bad? If you have ever been sick and had to take medicine, you already know about one kind of drugs. Medicines are legal drugs, meaning doctors are allowed to prescribe them for patients, stores can sell them, and people are allowed to buy them. But it is not legal, or safe, for people to use these medicines any way they want or to buy them from people who are selling them illegally.
When people talk about the “drug problem,” they usually mean abusing legal drugs or using illegal drugs, such as marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, LSD, crystal meth and heroin. Illegal drugs can damage the brain, heart, and other important organs. Cocaine, for instance, can cause a heart attack. While using drugs, a person is also less able to do well in school, sports, and other activities. It is often harder to think clearly and make good decisions. People can do dumb or dangerous things that could hurt themselves - or other people - when they use drugs.
Sometimes people try drugs to fi t in with a group of friends. Or they might be curious or just bored. A person may use illegal drugs for many reasons, but often because they help the person escape from reality for a while. If a person is sad or upset, a drug can - temporarily - make the person feel better or forget about problems. But this escape lasts only until the drug wears off. Drugs do not solve problems, of course. And using drugs often causes other problems on top of the problems the person had in the first place. A person who uses drugs can become dependent
on them, or addicted. This means that the person’s body becomes so accustomed to having this drug that he or she cannot function well without it. Once a person is addicted, it is very hard to stop taking drugs. Stopping can cause withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting (throwing up),
sweating, and tremors (shaking). These sick feelings continue until the person’s body gets adjusted to being drug free again.
If someone is using drugs, you might notice changes in how the person looks or acts. Here are some of those signs. A person using drugs may:
lose interest in school
change friends (to hang out with those who use drugs)
become moody, negative, cranky, or worried all the time
ask to be left alone a lot
have trouble concentrating
sleep a lot (maybe even in class)
get in fights
have red or puffy eyes
lose or gain weight
cough a lot
have a runny nose all of the time
1. What are drugs?
2. What are the examples of illegal drugs?
3. What are the effects of abusing drugs?
4. Why do people try drugs?
5. Can drugs solve problems?
6. What is meant by being addicted?
7. What will happen if a person stops taking drugs?
8. Mention some signs of someone using drugs.
9. What do the following words refer to?
a. “you” in paragraph 1 line 1 refers to ….
b. “they” in paragraph 1 line 2 refers to ….
c. “them” in paragraph 1 line 5 refers to ….
d. “they” in paragraph 1 line 5 refers to ….
e. “themselves” in paragraph 2 line 6 refers to ….
Read the following text.
The El Niño and La Niña Phenomena
Devianations from nor m al temperature patterns of the southern Pacific Ocean, between Australia and South America, result in the phenomenon called El Niño. Under normal conditions, eastern trade winds blows across the Pacific. These drive the sun-warmed surface water from the central Pacific to the coast of northern Australia. When clouds form above this area of warm water and move over Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and
Australia, they bring rain with them. Every two to seven years, however, this pattern is interrupted by the El Niño event. During El Niño, the Pacific Ocean of Australia does not warm as much as it normally does. Instead, it becomes warmer right up to the coast of Peruin South America.
At the same time, the easterly trade winds that blow across the Pacific reverse their direction. This causes high-pressure systems to build up to the north of and across the Australian Continent, preventing moist tropical air reaching the continent.
B. Inggris Kelas 12 SMA
These conditions in turn result in storms, and in rain falling in the eastern Pacific Ocean and in South America instead of in Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia, which suffer drought conditions. While the effect of El Niño are sometimes weak, at the other times they are very strong. During a severe El Niño period, extreme drought conditions prevail, as in 1982–83 and 1997-98. In contrast, heavy rainfall and flooding occurred in parts of North and South America. In 1997, there were severe storms and floods in Mexico and further north along the west coast of the United States.
The converse of the El Niño effect is the La Niña effect, which is an exaggeration of normal conditions. This takes place when trade winds blow strongly and consistently across the Pacific towards Australia. This pushes the warm waters from the central Pacific, off the northern Australian coast, to build up into a mass that is bigger than normal. Thus, much more cloud develops than usual, and this brings considerably more rain to Australia and neighbouring countries.
Answer the questions individually.
1. What cause the El Niño phenomenon?
2. Explain how rain falls in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Australia.
3. Explain why Australia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia suffer drought conditions during El Niño year.
4. What natural disasters did Mexicosuffer in 1997 as the result of El Niño?
5. Explain how La Niña effect takes place.
Acid rain is rain that is highly acidic because of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and other air pollutants dissolved in it. Normal rain is slightly acidic, with a pH of 6. Acid rain may have a pH value as low as 2.8.
Acid rain can severely damage both plant and animal
life. Certain lakes, for example, have lost all fish and plant life because of acid rain.
Acid rain comes from sulphur in coal and oil. When they burn, they make sulphur dioxide (SO2). Most sulphur leaves factory chimneys as the gaseous sulphur dioxide (SO2) and most nitrogen is also emitted as one of the nitrogen oxides (NO or NO2), both of which are gases. The gases may be dry deposited–absorbed directly by the land, by lakes or by the surface vegetation. If they are in the atmosphere for any time, the gases will oxidise (gain an oxygen atom) and go into solution as acids. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and the nitrogen oxides will become nitric acid (HNO3). The acids usually dissolve in cloud droplets and may travel great distances before being precipitated as acid rain.
Catalysts such as hydrogen peroxide, ozone and ammonium help promote the formation of acids in clouds. More ammonium (NH4) can be formed when some of the acids are partially neutralised by airborne ammonia (NH3). Acidification increases with the number of active hydrogen (H+) ions dissolved in acid. Hydrocarbons emitted by for example, car exhausts will react in sunlight with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone. Although it is invaluable in the atmosphere, low level ozone causes respiratory problems and also hastens the formation of acid rain. When acid rain falls on the ground it dissolves and liberates heavy metals and aluminium (Al). When it is washed into lakes, aluminium irritates the outer surfaces of many fish. As acid rain falls or drains into the lake the pH of the lake falls. Forests suffer the effect of acid rain through damage to leaves, through the loss of vital nutrients, and through the increased amounts of toxic metals liberated by acid, which damage roots and soil micro organisms.
Answer these questions
1. What is acid rain?
2. What is the pH of normal rain?
3. How is sulphur dioxide formed?
4. What will happen to sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide if they enter the atmosphere?
5. What substances react to form nitric acid?
6. What helps promote the formation of acids in clouds?
7. What influences the increase in acidification?
8. How is ozone produced?
9. Does low level ozone harm respiratory organs?
10. How does acid rain affect forests?
How the Water Cycle Works
Solar energy evaporates exposed water from seas, lakes, rivers, and wet soil; the majority of this evaporation takes place over the seas. Water is also released into the atmosphere by the plants through photosynthesis. During this process, known as evapotranspiration, water vapour rises into the atmosphere.
Clouds form when air becomes saturated with water vapour. The two major types of cloud formation are stratified or layered grey clouds called stratus and billowing white or dark grey cloud called cumulus clouds.
Precipitation as rain, or hail ensures that water returns to Earth’s surface in a fresh form. Some of this rain, however, falls into the seas and is not accessible to humans. When rain falls, it either washes down hill slopes or seeps underground; when snow and hail melts, this water may also sink into the ground.
Rain fall also replenishes river water supplies, as does underground water. Snow fall may consolidate into glaciers and ice sheets which, when they melt, release their water into the ground, into stream or into the seas.
1. Why does the majority of evaporation take place over seas?
2. How do clouds form?
3. How many major types of cloud formation are there?
4. What types of clouds are associated with rainy weather?
5. What will bring continuous rain?
6. What makes certain that water returns to Earth’s surface in a fresh form?
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